Assistance Update: Quarterly Report
FY 2002 Summary
The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 was signed on May 13, 2002, as Public Law 107-171. The 2002 Farm Act reauthorized, revised, or otherwise addressed such longstanding programs as Public Law 480, the Farmer-to-Farmer Program, short- and intermediate-term export credit guarantees, the Supplier Credit Guarantee Program, the Export Enhancement Program, the Dairy Export Incentive Program, the Market Access Program, and the Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) administers most of these trade-related programs. The exceptions are Titles II and III of P.L. 480, and the
Farmer-to-Farmer Program, which are administered by the U.S. Agency for
International Development (USAID). Within
USDA, the Foreign Agricultural Service has the lead responsibility for
developing and managing food aid, export assistance, and export market
Food Aid Programs
The 2002 Farm Act extended one of the oldest U.S. food aid programs—P.L. 480, also known as Food for Peace. Each title of P.L. 480 has been extended through 2007. Fiscal year 2002 commodity programming for food aid under P.L. 480 is estimated at $595 million, including $102 million for Title I and $493 million for Title II (including Title II/World Food Program). The $595 million in FY 2002 P.L. 480 food assistance supported the shipment of approximately 2.7 million metric tons of commodities.
P.L. 480, Title I, provides for U.S. government financing of sales of U.S. agricultural commodities to developing countries and private entities. Financing is provided on concessional terms, with credit terms of up to 30 years and a grace period of up to five years. In FY 2002, allocations totaling about 504,000 metric tons of commodities valued at $102 million went to nine countries under Title I concessional sales terms. Although Title I funds can be transferred to the Food for Progress program to support grant agreements, no grant donations were programmed under Title I-funded Food for Progress in FY 2002.
P.L. 480, Title II, is a donation program used for both emergency and developmental assistance. The 2002 Farm Act increased the minimum annual tonnage provided under Title II to 2.5 million metric tons from 2.025 million (all on a grain-equivalent basis). Title II programs may be carried out by a variety of entities, including private voluntary organizations (PVOs) and intergovernmental organizations such as the World Food Program. Government-to-government programs are authorized only for emergencies. For FY 2002, donations of about 2.2 million metric tons of commodities valued at an estimated $493 million were programmed under Title II.
The P.L. 480,
Title III, Food for Development program provides
government-to-government food assistance grants to least-developed countries to
support development. Local sales proceeds can be used to support a variety
of economic development and related activities in recipient countries. In
FY 2002, no donations were programmed under Title III, and this program is
likely to remain inactive.
The Food for Progress program
is carried out using funds appropriated under P.L. 480, Title I, or funds
available to the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC).
This program provides commodities to needy countries as an incentive or a
reward for undertaking economic or agricultural reform.
The 2002 Farm Act reauthorized the Food for Progress program through 2007
and set minimum annual commodity tonnage at 400,000 metric tons.
The legislation also increased the annual CCC funding cap for
administrative costs to $15 million (from $10 million) and the annual cap for
transportation and other noncommodity costs to $40 million (from $30 million). In FY 2002, Food for Progress donations totaling about
285,000 metric tons valued at around $86 million were programmed for 25
countries using CCC funds.
The Farmer-to-Farmer Program, managed by USAID, uses volunteer U.S. farmers and other U.S. agriculturalists to assist farmers, farm groups, and agribusinesses in developing, middle income, emerging market, Sub-Saharan African, and Caribbean Basin countries. The volunteers work directly with the recipients, passing on their expertise and technical skills in production and distribution. The 2002 Farm Act increased the minimum percentage of P.L. 480 funding for this program from 0.4 to 0.5 percent, while placing special emphasis on Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries.
Section 416(b) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 provides for the donation to needy countries of eligible commodities held by the CCC. In FY 2002, Section 416(b) donations totaling 1.6 million metric tons of commodities valued at approximately $410 million were programmed to 59 countries. Of this amount, about 274,000 metric tons of commodities valued at approximately $54 million were programmed to 28 countries under the pilot Global Food for Education (GFE) initiative. The pilot GFE initiative is an international school feeding program which uses commodities donated under the authority of the Section 416(b) program to improve school enrollment, attendance, and performance in poor countries.
The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program, authorized by the 2002 Farm Act, is based on, and will replace, the pilot GFE initiative. This program (hereafter referred to as FFE program) is now a fourth USDA international food aid authority, in addition to P.L. 480, Section 416(b), and Food for Progress. The FFE program is designed to encourage education and deliver food to improve nutrition for preschoolers, school children, mothers, and infants in impoverished regions. The 2002 Farm Act authorized the FFE program from FY 2003 through FY 2007, providing for $100 million in CCC funding for FY 2003. Funding in subsequent years would need to be authorized through Congressional appropriations.
In FY 2002, U.S. foreign food assistance under
the programs administered by USDA (P.L. 480, Title I; the Food for Progress
program; and the Section 416(b) program, including the pilot GFE initiative)
totaled about 2.4 million metric tons valued at $598 million.
Commercial Export Credit Guarantee Programs
The 2002 Farm Act mandates a minimum annual
program level of $5.5 billion for the Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102)
and the Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103).
The GSM-102 program guarantees repayments of short-term credits (90 days
to 3 years) extended by U.S. exporters—or financial institutions that may take
assignment of an exporter’s rights—to foreign banks that issue irrevocable
letters of credit in connection with an export sale.
In FY 2002, GSM-102 allocations of about
$4.6 billion were announced to 22 countries and 11 regions, including the
Baltic, Caribbean, Central America, Central Europe, China/Hong Kong, East
Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, Southeast Europe, Southern Africa, and
West Africa regions. Under this
availability, GSM-102 registrations totaled $3.0 billion for exports to 11
countries and six regions.
The Supplier Credit
Guarantee Program (SCGP) is designed to encourage U.S.
exporters to expand, maintain, or develop markets for U.S. agricultural products
in areas where commercial financing may not be available without a CCC payment
guarantee. The program can help U.S. exporters who wish to provide
short-term credit directly to their foreign buyers. The 2002 Farm Act increased the maximum credit terms under
the program to 360 days, subject to Congressional appropriation of funds to
cover the additional costs of the portion of any guarantee beyond 180 days.
The program currently provides coverage for up to 180 days.
In FY 2002, SCGP allocations totaling $1.1 billion in coverage were made available for sales to 18 countries and 11 regions, including the Baltic, Caribbean, Central America, Central Europe, China/Hong Kong, South America, Southeast Asia, Southeast Balkans, Southeast Europe, West Africa, and Western Europe regions. Under the announced availability, sales registrations totaled $452 million to 11 countries and nine regions.
Guarantee Program (FGP) extends credit guarantees for export sales of U.S.
capital goods and services to improve agriculture-related facilities in emerging
markets. In FY 2002, $285 million
in coverage was announced for sales to seven countries and seven regions.
No sales were registered under this program in FY 2002.
Export Assistance and Dairy Export Incentive Programs
The Export Enhancement Program (EEP), announced by USDA on May 15, 1985, operates under the authority of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978, as amended. The EEP permits USDA to provide bonuses to make U.S. commodities more competitive in the world marketplace and to offset the adverse effects of unfair trade practices or subsidies. The 2002 Farm Act extended EEP through 2007 at the current funding level of $478 million per year. It also expanded the definition of unfair trade practices to include trade-distorting subsidies, trade barriers such as labeling that restrict new technologies, unjustified sanitary and phytosanitary restrictions, and monopolistic state trading enterprises implementing noncommercial pricing practices. The EEP has been inactive in recent years, and no allocations were announced for FY 2002.
The 2002 Farm Act also extended the Dairy
Export Incentive Program (DEIP) through FY 2007. The DEIP focuses on market development, providing full
authority and funding to reach the volume or spending limits consistent with
U.S. obligations as a member of the World Trade Organization.
The DEIP operates on a bid bonus system similar to EEP, with cash bonus
payments. The DEIP program helps
exporters of U.S. dairy products meet prevailing world prices and helps develop
foreign markets for the targeted products.
Market Development Programs
Access Program (MAP) was authorized by Section 203 of the Agricultural Trade
Act of 1978, as amended. This
program is designed to encourage the development, maintenance, and expansion of
foreign markets for U.S. agricultural, fishery, and forestry products. The MAP forms a public-private sector cooperative arrangement
to share the costs of eligible overseas marketing and promotional activities.
This program links small U.S. businesses, U.S. agricultural cooperatives,
nonprofit state-regional trade groups, nonprofit U.S. agricultural trade
associations, and USDA. Activities
eligible for funding include consumer promotions, market research, trade shows,
and trade servicing.
Under the 2002
Farm Act, MAP funding
rises progressively each year to reach $200 million in 2006, up from $90 million
a year under the previous farm act. For
FY 2002, the legislation authorized $100 million in funding.
On June 26, 2002, USDA announced $90 million in MAP allocations to
67 U.S. trade organizations for export promotion activities in foreign markets. On Aug. 12, USDA allocated the additional $10 million in FY
Market Development Cooperator Program is authorized by the Agricultural
Trade Act of 1978. Like the MAP,
this program provides cost-share assistance to eligible nonprofit agricultural
trade organizations to conduct approved international market development
activities. USDA enters into
agreements with nonprofit U.S. trade organizations that have the broadest
producer representation of the commodity being promoted. Priority is given to those organizations that are nationwide
in membership and scope. Activities
conducted under this program generally address long-term foreign import
constraints and are designed to create, maintain, and expand long-term growth in
demand for U.S. agricultural, fishery, and forestry products.
On Nov. 30, 2001, USDA
announced an FY 2002 program level of $33.5 million, allocated among 24 U.S.
trade organizations. Under the 2002
Farm Act, $34.5 million in funding will be made available for this program each
fiscal year, up from $27.5 million previously.
Announced program levels may vary from funding levels because of the
carryover of unused funds from prior years.
Samples Program (QSP) was established in 1999 to help U.S. agricultural
trade organizations provide samples of U.S. agricultural products to potential
importers in foreign markets. Focusing
on industry and manufacturing uses, this program stimulates interest in U.S.
products by giving potential customers the opportunity to test the products and
discover U.S. quality. The QSP is
used to fund projects that broadly benefit agricultural industries rather than
individual exporters. Under the
program, participants export samples of U.S. agricultural products to foreign
buyers and provide technical demonstrations on how to properly use or further
process the products. When the
project is completed, USDA reimburses the allowable costs of procuring and
exporting the samples.
On June 26, 2002, USDA announced allocations of $1.3 million under the FY 2002 QSP. A second round of FY 2002 funding was announced on Oct. 1, with additional allocations of $281,300. Altogether, 21organizations will share more than $1.6 million in FY 2002 QSP funding.
for Specialty Crops (TASC) program was established by the 2002 Farm Act to
address unique barriers that prohibit or threaten exports of U.S. fruits,
vegetables, and other specialty crops. The
legislation calls for $2 million in Commodity Credit Corporation resources to be
provided each fiscal year through 2007 to assist organizations in removing,
resolving, or mitigating phytosanitary or related technical barriers to U.S.
specialty crops. These crops
include all cultivated plants and their products produced in the United States
except wheat, feed grains, oilseeds, cotton, rice, peanuts, sugar and tobacco.
On Oct. 1, 2002, USDA announced allocations of $2 million in FY 2002 TASC funding to 18 organizations for projects to help address current or potential barriers that hinder trade in specialty crops.
Emerging Markets Program was authorized by the
Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, as amended.
The legislation calls for $10 million in funding per year to assist
public and private organizations in providing technical assistance to promote
market development, improve market access, or assist in the development of
emerging market economies. The goal
is to foster growth in U.S. agricultural exports to low- and middle-income
countries that offer viable markets. The
program supports research on new markets, market promotion of U.S. agricultural
products, trade missions, and trade dispute resolution.
It can also sponsor training and trade capacity building projects so
potential buyers in emerging economies can use U.S. products profitably.